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Government and Politics - Survey

Party and Government: Communist, modeled on Soviet system; limited degree of private ownership permitted by 1960 Constitution. Unicameral People's Great Hural with 370 deputies elected in June 1986 for four-year term; 328 were members or candidate members of ruling Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party. Council of Ministers with highest executive power. Political processes guided in theory by People's Great Hural, which enacts basic laws of country, but real power vested in ten-person party Political Bureau. Central Committee appoints and removes Political Bureau members and is itself appointed by National Party Congress. Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party only legal party in 1989. Land, natural resources, factories, transport, and banking organizations are state property. Cooperative ownership of most public enterprises, especially livestock herding.

Administrative Divisions: Eighteen provinces (aymags), three municipalities (hots), and counties (somons), each with own Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party organization, which directs work of local assemblies, cooperatives, and government on its level.

Judicial System: Blend of Soviet, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; administered by courts and Office of the Procurator of the Republic - appointed to five-year term by People's Great Hural. No constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; does not accept International Court of Justice jurisdiction. Supreme Court elected by People's Great Hural for four-year term. Lower court judges elected by local assemblies for three-year terms. People's Great Hural appoints procurator, who appoints lower-level procurators. Procurator and Supreme Court accountable to People's Great Hural and its presidium.

Foreign Affairs: Heavily dependent on Soviet Union for economic assistance, technical aid, and labor. Historical focus on two neighbors - China and Soviet Union, with which it shares strategic location; latter with a powerful influence over many aspects of foreign policy. Diplomatic relations established with United States in 1987.

Last Update: 2004-12-29