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Party Congress

The party congress, convened regularly every five years, is theoretically the most authoritative body in the Mongolian party system. The Nineteenth Party Congress of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, convened in May 1986, was attended by 851 delegates - for 79 percent of whom it was their first party congress. An overview of the composition of the delegates revealed that 66 percent also were deputies to the People's Great Hural or to assemblies of people's deputies. Thirty-three percent were workers in industry, construction and communications; 17 percent were collectivized herdsmen; and 50 percent were white-collar workers, including members of the military and the intelligentsia. Seventy-nine percent were of the majority Khalkha nationality (see Mongols and Kazakhs).

Party Congresses, 1921-86

Party Congress*Date
First Party CongressMarch 1-3, l921
Second Party CongressJuly 18-August l8, 1923
Third Party CongressAugust 4-24, 1924
Fourth Party CongressSeptember 23-October 2, 1925
Fifth Party CongressSeptember 26-October 4, 1926
Sixth Party CongressSeptember 22-October 4, 1927
Seventh Party CongressOctober 23-December 10, 1928
Eighth Party CongressFebruary 21-April 3, 1930
Ninth Party CongressSeptember 28-October 5, 1934
Tenth Party CongressMarch 20-April 5, 1940
Eleventh Party CongressDecember 7-23, 1947
Twelfth Party CongressNovember 19-24, 1954
Thirteenth Party CongressMarch 17-22, 1958
Fourteenth Party CongressJuly 3-7, 1961
Fifteenth Party CongressJune 7-11, 1966
Sixteenth Party CongressJuly 1971
Seventeenth Party CongressJune 14-18, 1976
Eighteenth Party CongressMay 26-30, 1981
Nineteenth Party CongressMay 29-31, 1986
*Party known as Mongolian People's Party from 1921 to 1924; there after known as Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party.

These statistics showed predominantly urban and educated delegates, and they indicated the professionalization of the Mongolian leadership, much like what had occurred in the Soviet Union by the 1960s. In 1986 women accounted for 21 percent of the total number of delegates, which suggested a substantial representation within the leadership until this figure was balanced against the 30 percent of total party membership that women held in 1986.

The party congress also elects the Central Auditing Commission, which examines and verifies state expenditures. The Nineteenth Party Congress elected a Central Auditing Commission of twenty-three members, smaller than the previous commission of thirty-one, elected in 1981. Eighty-three percent of the commission's members were newly elected.

The Nineteenth Congress also stated its commitment to the existing Party Program, which in essence is dedicated to completing the "construction of socialism" in Mongolia. The Party Program contains the concepts and goals to be realized through the five-year plans and implemented by the government bureaucracy. As stated in the program, the party's role is to instill total commitment among citizens toward this goal: "The party will devote unflagging attention to organizing resolute struggle against views and morals as well as survivals of the past alien to socialism in the minds and lives of people." Extolling the values of patriotism and "proletarian internationalism," the program dictates that Mongolia "will educate the working people in the limitless love and devotion to their homeland, the Soviet Union and other countries in the socialist community. . . ."

Because the party congress of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party meets in regular session only every five years, it cannot serve as the governing party organization. Rather, one of its key functions is to elect the Central Committee, the body that sets the tone and establishes the overall leadership for the country.

Last Update: 2010-12-07