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Chronology of Important Events

Date Event
3rd century B.C.Iron weapons in use; Xiongnu invasion of China repulsed
2d-1st centuries B.C.Nomads expand west; pressure on China continues
1st-2d centuries A.D.Renewed attacks on China
A.D. 317Xianbei conquer northern China
386-533Period of Northern Wei Dynasty, established by the Toba in northern China mid-8th century; Possible early Mongol links with Tibetan Buddhism
916-1125Period of Kitan Liao Dynasty, established over eastern Mongolia, Manchuria, and northern China
1038-1227Tangut Western Xia Dynasty, established in northwestern China
1115-1234Jurchen establish Jin Dynasty in Manchuria, northern China
1139-47Jurchen defeat Mongols in Pamirs
1196-1206Temujin unites Mongols, assumes title of Chinggis Khan
1209-15Mongols conquer south to Beijing, west to Lake Balkash
1220-26Southwest Asia conquered; invasion of Europe and China
1227Chinggis dies
1231Korea invaded
1235Capital rebuilt at Karakorum
1237-41Expedition into Europe that was halted at Vienna with death of Ogedei
1240-1480Suzerainty over Russia established by Golden Horde Conquest of Song China
1260Mongols defeated by Egyptian Mamluks
1261Khubilai becomes great khan
1274 and 1281Unsuccessful attempts at invasion of Japan
1279Yuan Dynasty established in China
1368Yuan Dynasty destroyed; Mongols driven back into Mongolia
1388Chinese troops destroy Karakorum
1391Timur defeats Golden Horde
1400-54Civil war ends Mongol unity
1409-49Renewed Mongol invasions of China
1466Dayan Khan reunites most of Mongolia
1480-1502Muscovites end Mongol control of Russia; last of Golden Horde defeated
1571Mongols end 300-year war with China
1586Buddhism becomes state religion
1641-52Russians defeat Buryat Mongols, gain control of Lake Baykal region
1672Mongols raid Siberia and Russia
1691Most Khalkha Mongols accept suzerainty of Manchus, absorbed into Chinese empire (Qing Dynasty 1644-1911)
1728Sino-Russian Treaty of Kyakhta redefines traditional Mongolian borders
1732Dzungar Mongols defeated; Mongol independence ended
1750sChinese divide Mongolia into northern, Outer Mongolia, and Southern, Inner Mongolia
1783Last reigning descendant of Chinggis in the Crimea deposed by Russians
December 1, 1911Outer Mongolia proclaims independence from China
December 28, 1911Mongolia establishes autonomous theocratic government
November 3, 1912Russia affirms Mongolia's separation from China
November 5, 1913Sino-Russian agreement acknowledges Chinese suzerainty over Mongolia
May 25, 1915Treaty of Kyakhta formalizes Mongolian autonomy
September 1918Chinese troops occupy Outer Mongolia
March-June 1920Mongolian People's Party formed, establishes links with Communist International and Soviets
October 1920Russian White Guards invade Mongolia
March 1-3, 1921First National Party Congress of the Mongolian People's Party held in Kyakhta, Soviet Union
March 13, 1921Mongolian People's Provisional Government formed
July 1921Mongolian-Soviet army drives out White Guards
July 11, 1921Mongolian People's Government, a limited monarchy, proclaimed
September 14, 1921Mongolian independence proclaimed
November 5, 1921Soviets recognize Mongolian People's Government
February 22, 1923Revolutionary hero Damdiny Sukhe Batar dies
May 31, 1924Sino-Soviet treaty recognizes Chinese sovereignty over Mongolia
August 1924Mongolian People's Party becomes Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party
November 6, 1924First National Great Hural convenes
November 25, 1924Mongolian People's Republic proclaimed; Soviet style state constitution adopted; Niyslel Huree renamed Ulaanbaatar
March 1925Soviet troops ostensibly withdraw
September 1927Inner-party struggle at Sixth Party Congress
December 1928Horloyn Choybalsan emerges as party leader
1929-32Feudal estates confiscated; religious communities suppressed
April-May 1932Soviet troops help quell rebellions; party repudiates extremism
November 27, 1934Mongolian-Soviet "gentlemen's agreement" allows Soviet troops into Mongolia
March 12, 1936Treaty and mutual defense protocol signed with Soviet Union
1937-39High-level government purges
1938Buddhist monasteries closed
1939Choybalsan emerges as undisputed leader
July-August 1939Mongolian-Soviet joint force defeats Japanese at Khalkhyn Gol
March-April 1940Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal becomes party general secretary
August 10, 1945Mongolia declares war on Japan
January 5, 1946China recognizes Mongolia's independence
February 27, 1946Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Assistance and Agreement on Economic and Cultural Cooperation signed with Soviet Union
February 1949Ninth National Great Hural, first since 1940, convenes
January 26, 1952Choybalsan dies
May 1952Tsedenbal becomes premier
December 1952Economic and cultural cooperation agreement signed with China
April 1956"Personality cult" of Choybalsan condemned
October 1956New collective efforts start
July 6, 1960New state Constitution adopted
October 27, 1961Mongolia admitted to United Nations
January 1962Choybalsan's "personality cult" again condemned
June 7, 1962Mongolia joins Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon
1966Serious Mongolian-Chinese differences emerge
June 1974Jambyn Batmonh becomes chairman of Council of Ministers; Tsedenbal becomes chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Hural and continues as party first secretary
August 23, 1984Tsedenbal retires; Batmonh becomes party general secretary
December 12, 1984Batmonh elected chairman of Presidium of People's Great Hural; Dumaagiyn Sodnom becomes premier
April 1986Long-term trade agreement signed with China
January 15, 1987Soviet Union announces intention to withdraw one of five Soviet divisions stationed in Mongolia
January 27, 1987Diplomatic relations established with the United States
November 28, 1988Treaty on a border control system signed with China
March 7, 1989Soviets announced that troop withdrawal plans had been finalized

Last Update: 2010-12-07