This Web book is based on public domain material provided by the US government and is available in several versions. See the editorial for more information.

Bibliography - Government and Politics

Mongolia's contemporary politics have not been so widely studied by Western scholars as have the traditional historical subjects. A shortage of qualified linguists, the inaccessibility of the country to foreign scholars, and the fact that Mongolia has not played a major independent role in international affairs, were the main reasons for the dearth of scholarship and reporting. The most recent and inclusive source in the English language is Mongolia: Politics, Economics, and Society by Alan J. Sanders. Sanders also reports frequently on all aspects of Mongolia in the Far Eastern Economic Review. Victor P. Petrov's, Mongolia: A Profile, although dated, is also helpful. Useful articles and annual survey articles dealing with Mongolian politics appear in Asian Survey. Robert A. Rupen's How Mongolia Is Really Ruled explores the dynamics of Mongolian politics and demonstrates the importance of external factors, mainly the Soviet Union. The primary source on Mongolian legislation and legal documentation was William E. Butler's The Mongolian Legal System. A detailed study of the Mongolian Constitution is provided by George Ginsburgs in "Mongolia's `Socialist' Constitution," in Pacific Affairs.

Mongolian foreign policy matters were dealt with in Thomas E. Stolper's China, Taiwan, and the Offshore Islands, and in more detail in the annual Asian Survey articles and in Robert A. Scalapino's Major Power Relations in Northeast Asia. The United States government's Joint Publications Research Service publishes translations of selected Mongollanguage and Russian-language material. Mongol radiobroadcasts and periodicals are translated and published in the United States government's Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: East Asia. The annual editions of the American Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies and the Bibliography of Asian Studies also should be consulted for current publications on Mongolian government and politics.

Batmonh, Jambyn. "Renewal," New Times [Moscow], No. 9,
     February 27, 1989, 33-36.

Brown, William A., and Urgunge Onon (trans. and annot.).
     History of the Mongolian People's Republic.
     (Harvard East Asian Monographs, 65.) Cambridge: East Asian
     Research Center, Harvard University, 1976.

Butler, William E. The Mongolian Legal System: Contemporary
     Legislation and Documentation. The Hague: Martinus
     Nijhoff, 1982.

Enkhsaikhan, Jargalsaikhany. "Ensuring Peace in Asia and the
     Pacific: The Mongolian Initiative," Asian Survey,
     25, No. 10, October 1985, 1031-38.

Europa Yearbook, 1988. London: Europa, 1988.

Farrett, Kenneth. "Mongolia in 1987: Out from the Cold,"
     Asian Survey, 28, No. 1, January 1988, 78-85.

Flanz, Gisbert H., and Karen Shaw Kerpen (eds.). "Mongolian
     People's Republic." In Albert P. Blaustein and Gisbert H.
     Flanz (eds.), Constitutions of the Countries of the
     World, 10. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana, February

Friters, Gerald M. Outer Mongolia: And Its International
     Position. New York: Octagon Books, 1974.

Ginsburgs, George. "Mongolia's 'Socialist' Constitution,"
     Pacific Affairs [Vancouver], 34, No. 2, Summer
     1961, 141-56.

Gorbachev, Mikhail. "Excerpts from Mikhail Gorbachev's Speech in
     Krasnoyarsk on September 16, 1988," Far Eastern
     Affairs [Moscow], No. 1, January 1989, 2-4.

Green, Elizabeth E. "China and Mongolia: Recurring Trends and
     Prospects for Change," Asian Survey, 26, No. 12,
     December 1986, 1337-63.

Heaton, William R. "Mongolia in 1986: New Plan, New Situation,"
     Asian Survey, 27, No. 1, January 1987, 75-80.

Hillary, Naylor. "Letter from Ulan Bator," Far Eastern
     Economic Review [Hong Kong], November 19, 1982, 98.

Jagchid, Sechin, and Paul Hyer. Mongolia's Culture and
     Society. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1979.

Katerinich, A., and A. Sherstnoyov. "The Road of Peace and
     Progress," Far Eastern Affairs [Moscow], No. 4,
     1984, 13-24.

Lattimore, Owen. "Mongolia as a Leading State," Mongolian
     Studies, 10, 1986-87, 5-18.

"Leadership Profile: Jambyn Batmonh," Defense and Foreign
     Affairs Weekly, September 3-9, 1984, 7.

Mann, Steve. "Making It in Mongolia: At the New Post, an 'Aroma
     of Mutton'," State, No. 320, March 1989, 7-12.

Mongolia. Central Statistical Board. National Economy of the
     MPR for 65 Years, 1921-1986. Ulaanbaatar: 1986.

Nordby, Judith. "The Mongolian People's Republic in the 1980s:
     Continuity and Change," Journal of Communist
     Studies [London], 3, No. 4, December 1987, 113-31.

Novosti Press Agency and Unen Editorial Board (eds.). The
     60th Anniversary of People's Mongolia. Moscow: Novosti,

Petrov, Victor P. Mongolia: A Profile. New York:
     Praeger, 1980.

Rupen, Robert A. How Mongolia Is Really Ruled: A Political
     History of the Mongolian People's Republic, 1900-1978.
     Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University,

------. "The Mongolian People's Republic and Sino-Soviet
     Competition." Pages 262-92 in A. Doak Barnett (ed.),
     Communist Strategies in Asia: A Comparative Analysis of
     Governments and Parties. (Praeger Publications in
     Russian History and World Communism, 132.) New York:
     Praeger, 1963.

Sanders, Alan J.K. "Looking Beyond the Steppe: Sino-Soviet
     Relations Remain the Key to the Future," Far Eastern
     Economic Review [Hong Kong], December 10, 1987, 39-44.

------. "Mongolia in 1984: From Tsedenbal to Batmonh," Asian
     Survey, 25, No. 1, January 1985, 122-30.

------. "Mongolia in 1988: Year of Renewal," Asian
     Survey, 29, No. 1, January 1989, 46-53.

------. Mongolia: Politics, Economics, and Society.
     (Marxist Regimes Series.) Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner,

------. "Tsedenbal Is Riding High," Far Eastern Economic
     Review [Hong Kong], November 19, 1982, 38-44.

Scalapino, Robert A. Major Power Relations in Northeast
     Asia. (Asian Agenda Report, 9.) Lanham, Maryland:
     University Press of America, 1987.

Sheel, Ram Rahul. "Mongolia in International Perspective,"
     International Studies [Delhi], 22, No. 3, July-
     September 1985, 236-50.

Stolper, Thomas E. China, Taiwan, and the Offshore
     Islands. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1985.

Union of International Associations (ed.). Yearbook of
     International Organizations, 1988-89. Munich: K.G.
     Saur, 1989.

United States. Board on Geographic Names. Gazetteer of
     Mongolia. (2d ed.) Washington: Defense Mapping Agency,

------. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook,
     1989. (CPAS WF 89-001.) Washington: May 1989.

------. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs.
     Background Notes: Mongolia. (Department of State
     Publication, No. 8318.) Washington: May 1987.

"U.S. and Mongolia Establish Diplomatic Relations,"
     Department of State Bulletin, 87, No. 2120, March
     1987, 41.

Zheleznyakov, A. "The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party at
     Its Present-Day Stage," Far Eastern Affairs
     [Moscow], No. 4, 1983, 144-46.

    (Various issues of the following publication were also used
in the preparation of this chapter: Association for Asian
Studies, Bibliography of Asian Studies.)

Last Update: 2004-12-29